Kigali Agreement Wiki

The parties to the Montreal Protocol agreed at their 28th meeting in Kigali, Rwanda, on October 15, 2016, to gradually reduce CFCs. Countries agreed to add the list of controlled substances to the list of controlled substances and approved a timetable for their gradual reduction from 80 to 85% by the end of the 2040s. The first reductions by industrialized countries are expected in 2019. Developing countries will see a freeze on CFC consumption for some countries in 2024 and 2028. As a result of the international agreement, the hole in the Antarctic ozone layer is slowly recovering. [5] Climate forecasts indicate that the ozone layer will return to its 1980 level between 2050 and 2070. [6] [7] [8] The success of the Montreal Protocol is attributed to its effective burden-sharing and solution proposals, which have helped to mitigate regional conflicts of interest in relation to the inadequacies of the overall regulatory approach to the Kyoto Protocol. [9] However, global regulation was put in place before a scientific consensus was reached, and public opinion was convinced of the potential risks associated with the ozone layer. [10] [11] The Fund is managed by an executive committee, similarly represented by seven industrialized countries and seven countries, pursuant to Article 5, elected annually by a meeting of the parties. Each year, the committee reports on its activities at the parties` meeting. The Multilateral Fund`s work on the ground in developing countries is being led by four implementation agencies that have entered into contractual agreements with the Executive Committee:[40] Topics: International Day for The Conservation of the Ozone Layer – Kigali Agreement – Montreal Protocol – Ozone – World Ozone Day – World Ozone Day Since the Montreal Protocol came into force , atmospheric concentrations of major chlorofluorocarbons and associated chlorinated hydrocarbons are either lowered or reduced. [43] Halon concentrations have continued to increase due to the release of halons currently stored in fire extinguishers, but their rate of increase has slowed and their frequency is expected to decrease by about 2020.

The concentration of HCFCs has also increased drastically, at least in part, as many uses (for example. B as a solvent or refrigerant) replaced HCFCs with HCFCs. Although there have been reports of attempts by individuals to circumvent the ban. B, for example by smuggling undeveloped CFCs to industrialized countries, the overall level of compliance was high. The 2010 statistical analysis shows a clear positive signal from the Montreal Protocol to stratospheric ozone. [44] As a result, the Montreal Protocol has often been described as the most successful international environmental agreement to date. In a 2001 report, NASA found that ozone dilution over Antarctica had remained the same thickness over the past three years,[45] but in 2003, the hole in the ozone layer grew to its second largest size. [46] In the latest scientific assessment of the impact of the Montreal Protocol (2006), it states: “The Montreal Protocol works: there are clear signs of reduced atmospheric exposure to ozone-depleting substances and some early signs of stratospheric ozone recovery.” [47] However, a recent study suggests a relative increase in CFCs due to an unknown source. [48] The need for this change is due to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which controls ozone-depleting substances.

Because CFCs have been used as an alternative to ozone-depleting substances in refrigeration facilities, their role in global warming has become a major problem. In 2016, the parties to the Montreal Protocol adopted the CFC Convention concluding the 28th Meeting of the Parties (MOP 28) in Kigali, Rwanda.